<转载>真正的敏捷工作流 —— GitHub flow

GitHub flow,顾名思义,就是 GitHub 所推崇的 Workflow。千万不要理解成 GitHub 上才能用的 Workflow

其官网的描述为:

GitHub flow is a lightweight, branch-based workflow that supports teams and projects where deployments are made regularly.

从中我们可以得出的信息是 —— 这段描述完全就是废话 GitHub flow 具有很高的通用性。

为了更便于了解 GitHub flow 的内容,我们从流程图入手:

真正的敏捷工作流 —— GitHub flow

其中的主要流程为:

  • 新建分支(Create a branch);
  • 提交修改(Add commits);
  • 创建 PR(Open a Pull Request);
  • 代码评审(Discuss and review your code);
  • 部署(Deploy);
  • 合并(Merge);

细心的同学可能很快会发现,GitHub flow 最大的亮点在于部署(Deploy)发生在 合并(Merge)之前,这就是 GitHub flow 的核心,非阻塞式集成 —— 在产生任何副作用之前得知当前修改的所有集成效果,达到真正的持续集成。

GitHub flow 有什么优势?

GitHub flow 的核心优势在于其流程带来的自动化可能性,能够做到其它流程无法实现的检查过程,并极大简化开发团队的体力劳动,真正发挥自身的价值。

如何开始使用 GitHub flow?

使用 GitHub flow 的基本要求有:

  • 具备一个代码版本控制环境;
  • 具备一个持续集成环境;
  • (可选)具备 CI 环境的管理员权限;
  • 能够创建一个有权限访问 VCS 平台的机器人帐号;
  • 能够自由使用 VCS 平台的 WebHook API;
  • 能够自由使用 CI 平台的 Trigger API;
  • (可选)能够自由使用 CI 平台的状态查询 API;
  • 能够创建一个高可用的内部服务器用于机器人帐号的运行;
  • 能够决定开发团队的工作流程;
  • 能够投入成本改善基础设施;

遗憾的是,我至今没有过这种条件,如果你有能力去实践 GitHub flow,希望能够珍惜这次改善开发体验的机会,让更多人了解这种流程优化带来的巨大效率优势。

如果有任何具体的技术问题,也欢迎进一步的讨论。

写在最后

以我个人的体验,GitHub flow 是 世界上唯一的真理 真正能够拯救开发效率的敏捷实践,将开发人员真正从体力劳动中解放出来,从而能够专注于学习与思考。

如果你也觉得 GitHub flow 真正拯救了你的项目开发,不妨将它继续推广下去。

转自:https://www.infoq.cn/article/ICx4zr8mpIYO6kD9Qveb

Network monitoring on Linux

This post mentions some linux command line tools that can be used to monitor the network usage. These tools monitor the traffic flowing through network interfaces and measure the speed at which data is currently being transferred. Incoming and outgoing traffic is shown separately.

Some of the commands, show the bandwidth used by individual processes. This makes it easy to detect a process that is overusing network bandwidth.

The tools have different mechanisms of generating the traffic report. Some of the tools like nload read the “/proc/net/dev” file to get traffic stats, whereas some tools use the pcap library to capture all packets and then calculate the total size to estimate the traffic load.

Here is a list of the commands, sorted by their features.

1. Overall bandwidth - nload, bmon, slurm, bwm-ng, cbm, speedometer, netload

2. Overall bandwidth (batch style output) - vnstat, ifstat, dstat, collectl

2. Bandwidth per socket connection - iftop, iptraf, tcptrack, pktstat, netwatch, trafshow

3. Bandwidth per process - nethogs

1. Nload

Nload is a commandline tool that allows users to monitor the incoming and outgoing traffic separately. It also draws out a graph to indicate the same, the scale of which can be adjusted. Easy and simple to use, and does not support many options.

So if you just need to take a quick look at the total bandwidth usage without details of individual processes, then nload will be handy.

$ nload
nload command linux

Installing Nload – Fedora and Ubuntu have got it in the default repos. CentOS users need to get nload from Epel repositories.

# fedora or centos
$ yum install nload -y

# ubuntu/debian
$ sudo apt-get install nload

2. iftop

Iftop measures the data flowing through individual socket connections, and it works in a manner that is different from Nload. Iftop uses the pcap library to capture the packets moving in and out of the network adapter, and then sums up the size and count to find the total bandwidth under use.

Although iftop reports the bandwidth used by individual connections, it cannot report the process name/id involved in the particular socket connection. But being based on the pcap library, iftop is able to filter the traffic and report bandwidth usage over selected host connections as specified by the filter.

$ sudo iftop -n

The n option prevents iftop from resolving ip addresses to hostname, which causes additional network traffic of its own.

iftop command linux

Install iftop – Ubuntu/Debian/Fedora users get it from default repos. CentOS users get it from Epel.

# fedora or centos
yum install iftop -y

# ubuntu or debian
$ sudo apt-get install iftop

3. iptraf

Iptraf is an interactive and colorful IP Lan monitor. It shows individual connections and the amount of data flowing between the hosts. Here is a screenshot

$ sudo iptraf
iptraf linux command

Install iptraf

# Centos (base repo)
$ yum install iptraf

# fedora or centos (with epel)
$ yum install iptraf-ng -y

# ubuntu or debian
$ sudo apt-get install iptraf iptraf-ng

4. nethogs

Nethogs is a small ‘net top’ tool that shows the bandwidth used by individual processes and sorts the list putting the most intensive processes on top. In the event of a sudden bandwidth spike, quickly open nethogs and find the process responsible. Nethogs reports the PID, user and the path of the program.

$ sudo nethogs
nethogs command linux

Install Nethogs – Ubuntu, Debian, Fedora users get from default repos. CentOS users need Epel

# ubuntu or debian (default repos)
$ sudo apt-get install nethogs

# fedora or centos (from epel)
$ sudo yum install nethogs -y

5. bmon

Bmon (Bandwidth Monitor) is a tool similar to nload that shows the traffic load over all the network interfaces on the system. The output also consists of a graph and a section with packet level details.

bmon linux network monitor

Install Bmon – Ubuntu, Debian and Fedora users can install from default repos. CentOS users need to setup repoforge, since its not available in Epel.

# ubuntu or debian
$ sudo apt-get install bmon

# fedora or centos (from repoforge)
$ sudo yum install bmon

Bmon supports many options and is capable of producing reports in html format. Check the man page for more information

6. slurm

Slurm is ‘yet’ another network load monitor that shows device statistics along with an ascii graph. It supports 3 different styles of graphs each of which can be activated using the c, s and l keys. Simple in features, slurm does not display any further details about the network load.

$ slurm -s -i eth0
slurm command linux

Install slurm

# debian or ubuntu
$ sudo apt-get install slurm

# fedora or centos
$ sudo yum install slurm -y

7. tcptrack

Tcptrack is similar to iftop, and uses the pcap library to capture packets and calculate various statistics like the bandwidth used in each connection. It also supports the standard pcap filters that can be used to monitor specific connections.

tcptrack command linux

Install tcptrack – Ubuntu, Debian and Fedora have it in default repos. CentOS users need to get it from RepoForge as it is not available in Epel either.

# ubuntu, debian
$ sudo apt-get install tcptrack

# fedora, centos (from repoforge repository)
$ sudo yum install tcptrack

8. Vnstat

Vnstat is bit different from most of the other tools. It actually runs a background service/daemon and keeps recording the size of data transfer all the time. Next it can be used to generate a report of the history of network usage.

$ service vnstat status
 * vnStat daemon is running

Running vnstat without any options would simply show the total amount of data transfer that took place since the date the daemon is running.

$ vnstat
Database updated: Mon Mar 17 15:26:59 2014

   eth0 since 06/12/13

          rx:  135.14 GiB      tx:  35.76 GiB      total:  170.90 GiB

   monthly
                     rx      |     tx      |    total    |   avg. rate
     ------------------------+-------------+-------------+---------------
       Feb '14      8.19 GiB |    2.08 GiB |   10.27 GiB |   35.60 kbit/s
       Mar '14      4.98 GiB |    1.52 GiB |    6.50 GiB |   37.93 kbit/s
     ------------------------+-------------+-------------+---------------
     estimated      9.28 GiB |    2.83 GiB |   12.11 GiB |

   daily
                     rx      |     tx      |    total    |   avg. rate
     ------------------------+-------------+-------------+---------------
     yesterday    236.11 MiB |   98.61 MiB |  334.72 MiB |   31.74 kbit/s
         today    128.55 MiB |   41.00 MiB |  169.56 MiB |   24.97 kbit/s
     ------------------------+-------------+-------------+---------------
     estimated       199 MiB |      63 MiB |     262 MiB |

To monitor the bandwidth usage in realtime, use the ‘-l’ option (live mode). It would then show the total bandwidth used by incoming and outgoing data, but in a very precise manner without any internal details about host connections or processes.

$ vnstat -l -i eth0
Monitoring eth0...    (press CTRL-C to stop)

   rx:       12 kbit/s    10 p/s          tx:       12 kbit/s    11 p/s

Vnstat is more like a tool to get historic reports of how much bandwidth is used everyday or over the past month. It is not strictly a tool for monitoring the network in real time.

Vnstat supports many options, details about which can be found in the man page.

Install vnstat

# ubuntu or debian
$ sudo apt-get install vnstat

# fedora or centos (from epel)
$ sudo yum install vnstat

9. bwm-ng

Bwm-ng (Bandwidth Monitor Next Generation) is another very simple real time network load monitor that reports a summary of the speed at which data is being transferred in and out of all available network interfaces on the system.

$ bwm-ng
bwm-ng v0.6 (probing every 0.500s), press 'h' for help
  input: /proc/net/dev type: rate
  /         iface                   Rx                   Tx                T
ot==========================================================================
==           eth0:           0.53 KB/s            1.31 KB/s            1.84
KB             lo:           0.00 KB/s            0.00 KB/s            0.00
KB--------------------------------------------------------------------------
--          total:           0.53 KB/s            1.31 KB/s            1.84
KB/s

If the console size is sufficiently large, bwm-ng can also draw bar graphs for the traffic using the curses2 output mode.

$ bwm-ng -o curses2

Install Bwm-NG – On CentOS bwm-ng can be installed from Epel.

# ubuntu or debian
$ sudo apt-get install bwm-ng

# fedora or centos (from epel)
$ sudo apt-get install bwm-ng

10. cbm – Color Bandwidth Meter

A tiny little simple bandwidth monitor that displays the traffic volume through network interfaces. No further options, just the traffic stats are display and updated in realtime.

cbm linux network monitor
$ sudo apt-get install cbm

11. speedometer

Another small and simple tool that just draws out good looking graphs of incoming and outgoing traffic through a given interface.

$ speedometer -r eth0 -t eth0
speedometer linux network monitor

Install speedometer

# ubuntu or debian users
$ sudo apt-get install speedometer

12. Pktstat

Pktstat displays all the active connections in real time, and the speed at which data is being transferred through them. It also displays the type of the connection, i.e. tcp or udp and also details about http requests if involved.

$ sudo pktstat -i eth0 -nt
pktstat linux network monitor
$ sudo apt-get install pktstat

13. Netwatch

Netwatch is part of the netdiag collection of tools, and it too displays the connections between local host and other remote hosts, and the speed at which data is transferring on each connection.

$ sudo netwatch -e eth0 -nt
netwatch linux network monitor
$ sudo apt-get install netdiag

14. Trafshow

Like netwatch and pktstat, trafshow reports the current active connections, their protocol and the data transfer speed on each connection. It can filter out connections using pcap type filters.

Monitor only tcp connections

$ sudo trafshow -i eth0 tcp
trafshow linux network monitor
$ sudo apt-get install netdiag

15. Netload

The netload command just displays a small report on the current traffic load, and the total number of bytes transferred since the program start. No more features are there. Its part of the netdiag.

$ netload eth0
netload linux network monitor
$ sudo apt-get install netdiag

16. ifstat

The ifstat reports the network bandwidth in a batch style mode. The output is in a format that is easy to log and parse using other programs or utilities.

$ ifstat -t -i eth0 0.5
  Time           eth0       
HH:MM:SS   KB/s in  KB/s out
09:59:21      2.62      2.80
09:59:22      2.10      1.78
09:59:22      2.67      1.84
09:59:23      2.06      1.98
09:59:23      1.73      1.79

Install ifstat – Ubuntu, Debian and Fedora users have it in the default repos. CentOS users need to get it from Repoforge, since its not there in Epel.

# ubuntu, debian
$ sudo apt-get install ifstat

# fedora, centos (Repoforge)
$ sudo yum install ifstat

17. dstat

Dstat is a versatile tool (written in python) that can monitor different system statistics and report them in a batch style mode or log the data to a csv or similar file. This example shows how to use dstat to report network bandwidth

$ dstat -nt
-net/total- ----system----
 recv  send|     time     
   0     0 |23-03 10:27:13
1738B 1810B|23-03 10:27:14
2937B 2610B|23-03 10:27:15
2319B 2232B|23-03 10:27:16
2738B 2508B|23-03 10:27:17

Install dstat

$ sudo apt-get install dstat

18. collectl

Collectl reports system statistics in a style that is similar to dstat, and like dstat it is gathers statistics about various different system resources like cpu, memory, network etc. Over here is a simple example of how to use it to report network usage/bandwidth.

$ collectl -sn -oT -i0.5
waiting for 0.5 second sample...
#         <----------Network---------->
#Time       KBIn  PktIn  KBOut  PktOut 
10:32:01      40     58     43      66 
10:32:01      27     58      3      32 
10:32:02       3     28      9      44 
10:32:02       5     42     96      96 
10:32:03       5     48      3      28

Install Collectl

# Ubuntu/Debian users
$ sudo apt-get install collectl

#Fedora
$ sudo yum install collectl